For example, articles in the biomedical literature are available publicly from MEDLINE which is accessible through Pub Med.An academic abstract typically outlines four elements relevant to the completed work: although some publications' standard style omits references from the abstract, reserving them for the article body (which, by definition, treats the same topics but in more depth).
Example taken from the Journal of Biology, Volume 3, Issue 2.: by Daniel Weihs, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel.
Abstract: Background Drafting in cetaceans is defined as the transfer of forces between individuals without actual physical contact between them.
Most literature database search engines index only abstracts rather than providing the entire text of the paper.
Full texts of scientific papers must often be purchased because of copyright and/or publisher fees and therefore the abstract is a significant selling point for the reprint or electronic form of the full text.
Abstracting and indexing services for various academic disciplines are aimed at compiling a body of literature for that particular subject.
The terms précis or synopsis are used in some publications to refer to the same thing that other publications might call an "abstract".
Second is the displacement effect, in which the motion of the mother causes the water in front to move forwards and radially outwards, and water behind the body to move forwards to replace the animal's mass.
Thus, the calf can gain a 'free ride' in the forward-moving areas.
Abstract length varies by discipline and publisher requirements.
Typical length ranges from 100 to 500 words, but very rarely more than a page and occasionally just a few words.