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Not only isolated individuals, but whole social groups, inspired with the new spirit, struggled with a society that was not yet permeated with it. condemns as unlawful all gain obtained at a neighbor's expense, and the amassing of wealth." The Huguenots and Dutch Reformers also preached against various aspects of capitalism: ". Fanfani argues that capitalism as we know it today was born in the Italian merchant states under the religious umbrella of Catholicism, but he discounts the effect that religion of any kind had on the growth of capitalism as the major world economic system. himself from the bonds imposed on him during the Middle Ages." Malcolm H.Once we have ruled out that Protestantism could have produced a phenomenon that already existed, it still remains for us to enquire whether capitalism was encouraged or opposed by Protestantism. He concludes his article by stating, "The creation of a new mentality in the economic field cannot therefore be considered as the work of Protestantism, or rather of any one religion, but it is a manifestation of that general revolution of thought that characterizes the period of the Renaissance and the Reformation, by which in art, philosophy, morals, and economy, the individual emancipates . Mac Kinnon, bases his disagreements with Weber on the idea that Weber misinterpreted what the Calvinists were saying about the concept of the calling and good works.These criticisms themselves fall into two major categories: (1) that capitalism was a growing force before the Reformation and that it would have thrived as well under Catholicism as under Protestantism and (2) that the driving force behind capitalism was not ascetism but rationality. He states that Weber's assertion that the concept of the "calling" was novel to Luther and Protestantism was not established in Weber's writings. division of men in different occupations occurs in the first place through divine providence, which distributes the condition of men in such a way . In his article "Catholicism, Protestantism, and Capitalism," Fanfani disagrees with Weber concerning the role that Protestant ism played in the development of a capitalist spirit in Europe. that Europe was acquainted with capitalism before the Protestant revolt.
Many historians value its application of social theory to historical events and praise it for its attempt to explain why capitalism thrived in Europe and subsequently the United States and not as much in other places.
Immanuel Wallerstein, for instance, drew heavily on Weber for explanations of the growth of capitalism into the modern economic world-system in his classic three volume work, The Modern World-System.
He that loses five shillings, not only loses that sum, but all the advantages that might be made by turning it in dealing, which by the time that a young man becomes old, will amount of a considerable amount of money.
Weber then said, "Truly what is here preached is not simply a means of making one's way in the world, but a particular ethic...
The criticisms of Weber's hypothesis have helped keep his ideas at the forefront of social theory.
The repercussions have echoed throughout the academic world for almost 100 years and continue today.
For Weber, capitalism was more than simply an accumulation of wealth. In fact, Weber insisted that capitalism was the triumph of rationality over tradition.
Explicit in his view of capitalism were a disciplined labor force and the regularized investment of capital.
This paper will take a look at some of the criticisms of Weber's capitalism/protestantism theory from various points of view.
I cannot begin to cover all of Weber's critics in the course of this paper, but I will present some representative criticisms of the theory.