The lifetime rate of AAS use is reported to be 3.3% globally, with a higher prevalence among males (6.6%) than females (1.6%) .
The lifetime rate of AAS use in Sweden is estimated to be 4.4%, which is above the global average and the highest reported rate in the Nordic countries .
AAS use shares several characteristics with misuse of other substances, e.g., withdrawal syndrome, continued use despite adverse effects, and maladaptive behavioural patterns .
Moreover, concomitant AAS and drug use is associated with increased risks of mortality, and negative psychophysical effects, possibly due to the combined effects of substances .
The NATA reserves the right to rescind or modify its position statements at any time.
Note: It is important to know how to evaluate and cite information first.The overall objective of the present project is to examine a prevention programme named 100% Pure Hard Training (100% PHT), which targets AAS use among recreational sportspeople training in gyms.Specifically, the project aims to: 1) assess the prevalence of AAS, and its associations with alcohol, illicit drugs, and nutritional supplements use; 2) examine whether 100% PHT can decrease AAS use in gyms, and 3) provide insights into which factors facilitate and/or impede implementation of the programme.Consequently, it has been proposed that AAS prevention efforts should also focus on the role of polysubstance use .The use of nutritional supplements is widespread among AAS users [16–19], as such supplements are suggested to improve muscle growth, increase alertness, boost metabolism, and decrease weight or body fat.Knowledge gained from the present project can be used to develop community-based doping prevention efforts aimed at recreational sportspeople training in gyms.Furthermore, it can provide insights into which factors are important for successful implementation of AAS prevention programmes that target gyms.During the past decades, concerns about increased anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use among recreational sportspeople have been raised, yet there is a paucity of AAS prevention efforts targeting this group.Accordingly, doping prevention efforts aimed at gyms have been recommended.Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are a class of hormones that can be used to enhance athletic performance and stimulate muscle growth.AAS are classified as illegal or controlled substances in many countries, yet their use has increased during recent years, particularly among non-competitive recreational athletes [1, 2].