Identifying the structure of an essay or an article is one way of understanding its purpose.
There are a number of common patterns of text in academic writing, including: Coherence It is the writer's responsibility to guide the reader through the text.
To avoid this, using linking or transition words that signpost your arguments can help to clarify your views and show the reader what to expect from certain paragraphs or sentences.
These words give structure to the whole, helping you to organise your ideas and assist the reader in understanding them.
The essay is divided into…main parts: part one will … It is often helpful to quantify what the essay will do. Then use connecting words like , , , through the essay in order to signpost the different points.
Building on from the idea that ..., this section illustrates that ... One way of doing this is by using signposting phrases.A signpost is a phrase that a speaker or a writer uses to indicate different stages or parts of a text, whether written or spoken. Clearly, this essay has shown that the main factors which impact upon … This essay has focussed on three factors affecting … It’s very common for students to use long words they don’t understand very well in their essays and theses because they have a certain idea of what academic writing should be.Many students believe that academic writing is wordy and convoluted, and uses a lot of jargon. To add more ideas: again, furthermore, in addition, moreover To compare or contrast ideas: alternatively, contrastingly, conversely, whereas To prove something: evidently, for this reason, because, inevitably To show exceptions: however, nevertheless, yet, in spite of To repeat or refer back to something: as has been mentioned/noted…/As previously discussed To show that you will include something later: this will be discussed in detail later To emphasise something: definitely, obviously, inevitably, undeniably To give an example: for instance, in this case, in particular, notably To show the order of things: previously, following this, initially, subsequently, finally This essay will [first] outline/examine/address/argue/demonstrate/focus on … and will [then] ascertain/establish/clarify/show/judge/prove … We have prepared some flashcards containing linking words you can use in academic writing.Below is a handy list of words that are both useful and appropriate to academic language.