Significantly, the committee’s October 1947 report, “To Secure These Rights,” provided civil rights proponents in Congress with a legislative blueprint for much of the next two decades.
Among its recommendations were the creation of a permanent FEPC, the establishment of a permanent Civil Rights Commission, the creation of a civil rights division in the U. Department of Justice, and the enforcement of federal anti-lynching laws and desegregation in interstate transportation.
A faction of southern Democrats, upset with the administration’s efforts, split to form the States’ Rights Democratic Party, a conservative party that sought to preserve and maintain the system of segregation.
Also known as the Dixiecrats, they nominated South Carolina Governor—and future U. Senator—Strom Thurmond as their presidential candidate in 1948. Eisenhower, largely cautious and incremental in his approach, followed FDR’s pattern.
In 1948 President Truman signed Executive Order 9981, desegregating the military.
The backlash to Truman’s civil rights policies contributed to the unraveling of the solid Democratic South.“In the field of public education, separate but equal has no place,” the Justices declared.Then, in the early 1960s, the Supreme Court rendered a string of decisions known as the “reapportionment cases” that fundamentally changed the voting landscape for African Americans. The court nullified Georgia’s unequal congressional districts in Wesberry while validating the Fourteenth Amendment’s provision for equal representation for equal numbers of people in each district.Transitional devices are words or phrases that help carry a thought from one sentence to another, from one idea to another, or from one paragraph to another.And finally, transitional devices link sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas.There are several types of transitional devices, and each category leads readers to make certain connections or assumptions.Some lead readers forward and imply the building of an idea or thought, while others make readers compare ideas or draw conclusions from the preceding thoughts.Smith often shuttered committee operations by retreating to his rural farm to avoid deliberations on pending reform bills.Southern conservatives still held the levers of power on Capitol Hill.To serve as his Attorney General, he appointed Herbert Brownell, a progressive to whom he gave wide discretion.Eisenhower also appointed California Governor Earl Warren as Chief Justice of the U. Supreme Court in 1953, preparing the way for a series of landmark civil rights cases decided by the liberal Warren court.