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Public Policy-Making Process PUBLIC POLICY MAKING and the POLICY-MAKING PROCESS Public policy-making or the policy-making process that occurs in governmental organizations is a complex process that involves many organizations and entities and is inclusive of several stages in the policy-making process.
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Lindblom stated that: "Almost every interest has its watchdog.
Without claiming that every interest has a sufficiently powerful watchdog it can be argued that our system often can assure a more comprehensive regard for the values of the whole society than any attempt at intellectual comprehensiveness. 85) Group interaction is stated by some to be that which drives public policy.Throw in small paragraphs of whatever you feel is relevant, it will make sense in the end.Google might help you with facts, but writing your statement is something that you have to do on your own.The role of analysis is to keep that power in check, not to replace it." (Ibid) it is held by Lindblom and Woodhouse that the best path to the truth is the competition of ideas and that democracy opens up the marketplace for ideas providing the best opportunity for policy-making that is both reasoned and informed.The problem is that competition may result in both reason and contention creating the question then of where does the balance lie between the "...power of politics and the politics of analysis?" (Ibid) Lindblom and Woodhouse explain that policy studies cannot be considered to be a 'linear, step-wise process" but is an environment that is static in which policy may arise from compromise, as a byproduct of other actions, emerge gradually, or even come into being through inaction and precedent.Lindblom and Woodhouse state that: "Policy making is a complexly interaction process without beginning or end." [p,11] How Perceived Problems gets on the Public Agenda In Lindblom's 1959 work the term 'watchdog' was used describing the representations of a particular value or interest represented within the system.Charles Lindblom published an article entitled: "The Science of Muddling Through" in 1959 and is 'one of the most highly cited articles in the Social Science Citation Index" (Weiss and Woodhouse, 1992, p.267; as cited by Kantor, 2000) and continues to generate debate and insights into policy making which are valuable to analysts (e.g.Lessman, 1989; Weiss and Woodhouse, 1992; Albaek, 1995) The Nature of Policy The argument of Lindblom was that the process of policy development is both a systematic and rational process and that "policy makers are constrained in their ability to develop policies on a blank sheet of paper.Just be confident and type down those first few words; write whatever comes to your mind.Don’t be afraid of hastily scribbling down words— you can ruthlessly edit later.