As early as World War II (1939-1945), Lewin experimented with a collaborative change-process (involving himself as consultant and a client group) based on a three-step process of planning, taking action, and measuring results.
This was the forerunner of action research, an important element of OD, which will be discussed later.
This required a transfer between two different cultures, the relatively safe and protected environment of the T-group (or training group) and the give-and-take of the organizational environment with its traditional values.
This led the early pioneers in this type of learning to begin to apply it to "family groups" — that is, groups located within an organization.
From this shift in the locale of the training site and the realization that culture was an important factor in influencing group members (along with some other According to organizational-development thinking, organization development provides managers with a vehicle for introducing change systematically by applying a broad selection of management techniques.
This, in turn, leads to greater personal, group, and organizational effectiveness.A change agent in the sense used here is not a technical expert skilled in such functional areas as accounting, production, or finance.The change agent is a behavioral scientist who knows how to get people in an organization involved in solving their own problems.RCGD colleagues were among those who founded the National Training Laboratories (NTL), from which the T-groups and group-based OD emerged.Kurt Lewin played a key role in the evolution of organization development as it is known today.These procedures became important parts of OD as developments in this field continued at the National Training Laboratories and in growing numbers of universities and private consulting-firms across the country degrees in OD include Benedictine University and the Fielding Graduate University.Douglas and Richard Beckhard, while "consulting together at General Mills in the 1950s [...] coined the term organization development (OD) to describe an innovative bottom-up change effort that fit no traditional consulting categories" (Weisbord, 1987, p. The failure of off-site laboratory training to live up to its early promise was one of the important forces stimulating the development of OD.It is interdisciplinary in nature and draws on sociology, psychology, particularly industrial and organizational psychology, and theories of motivation, learning, and personality.Although behavioral science has provided the basic foundation for the study and practice of OD, new and emerging fields of study have made their presence felt.The change agent may be a staff or line member of the organization who is schooled in OD theory and technique.In such a case, the "contractual relationship" is an in-house agreement that should probably be explicit with respect to all of the conditions involved except the fee.