For Protein Sythesis

Each group is a Thus, a codon may be CGA, or TTA, or GCT, or any other combination of the four bases, depending on the codon’s complementary sequence in the DNA strand.Each codon will later serve as a “code word” for an amino acid.

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Similar to the process of DNA replication, the new nucleic acid strand elongates in a 5'-3' direction, as shown in Figure 10-2.

The enzyme selects complementary bases from available nucleotides and positions them in an m RNA molecule according to the principle of complementary base pairing.

There are also non-coding RNA molecules (nc RNAs), which are not directly involved in protein synthesis.

These will be further discussed in the section “Gene Control,” later in this chapter Transcription is one of the first processes in the mechanism of protein synthesis.

First, however, the codons are transcribed to the m RNA molecule.

Thus, the m RNA molecule consists of nothing more than a series of codons received from the genetic message in the DNA.

For protein synthesis to occur, several essential materials must be present, such as a supply of the 20 amino acids, which comprise most proteins.

Another essential component is a series of enzymes that will function in the process.

DNA and another form of nucleic acid called ribonucleic acid (RNA) are essential.

RNA is the nucleic acid that carries instructions from the nuclear DNA into the cytoplasm, where protein is synthesized. First, the carbohydrate in RNA is ribose rather than deoxyribose, and second, RNA nucleotides contain the pyrimidine uracil rather than thymine. Ribosomes are ultramicroscopic particles of r RNA and protein.

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