Individual researchers differ quite a bit in their preference for such titles.
Some use them regularly, while others never use them.
Immediately after the opening comes the literature review, which describes relevant previous research on the topic and can be anywhere from several paragraphs to several pages in length.
However, the literature review is not simply a list of past studies.
In this section, we look at how to write an APA-style empirical research report, an article that presents the results of one or more new studies.
Recall that the standard sections of an empirical research report provide a kind of outline.An APA-style research report begins with a title page.The title is centred in the upper half of the page, with each important word capitalized.191) The following would be much better: The individual who holds two beliefs that are inconsistent with one another may feel uncomfortable. Giving readers a clear sense of what the research is about and why they should care about it will motivate them to continue reading the literature review—and will help them make sense of it.For example, the person who knows that he or she enjoys smoking but believes it to be unhealthy may experience discomfort arising from the inconsistency or disharmony between these two thoughts or cognitions. Breaking the Rules Researcher Larry Jacoby reported several studies showing that a word that people see or hear repeatedly can seem more familiar even when they do not recall the repetitions—and that this tendency is especially pronounced among older adults.The title should clearly and concisely (in about 12 words or fewer) communicate the primary variables and research questions.This sometimes requires a main title followed by a subtitle that elaborates on the main title, in which case the main title and subtitle are separated by a colon.The opening, which is usually a paragraph or two in length, introduces the research question and explains why it is interesting.To capture the reader’s attention, researcher Daryl Bem recommends starting with general observations about the topic under study, expressed in ordinary language (not technical jargon)—observations that are about people and their behaviour (not about researchers or their research; Bem, 2003). According to Bem, this would be a poor way to begin a research report: Festinger’s theory of cognitive dissonance received a great deal of attention during the latter part of the 20th century (p.The introduction includes three distinct subsections, although these are typically not identified by separate headings.The opening introduces the research question and explains why it is interesting, the literature review discusses relevant previous research, and the closing restates the research question and comments on the method used to answer it.