In-Text Citations: In-text citations appear in the body of your paper.They identify your use of an idea from one of your sources.
When speaking, we can pause or change the tone of our voices to indicate emphasis.
When writing, we use punctuation to indicate these places of emphases.
In his Gettysburg Address, Abraham Lincoln urges Americans to rededicate themselves to the unfinished work of the deceased soldiers: "It is for us the living rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced.
It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us — that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion — that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain, that this nation under God shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth." Parentheses are used to emphasize content.
This handout should help to clarify when and how to use various marks of punctuation. Although there is no set rule that requires a comma before the last item in a series, it seems to be a general academic convention to include it. Use a comma to separate nonessential elements from a sentence.
More specifically, when a sentence includes information that is not crucial to the message or intent of the sentence, enclose it in or separate it by commas.(8th ed.), and is appropriate for most academic and professional writing.Newspapers tend to favor quotation marks in place of italics for most titles.Use quotation marks around the titles of short poems, song titles, short stories, magazine or newspaper articles, essays, speeches, chapter titles, short films, and episodes of television or radio shows.Do not use quotation marks in indirect or block quotations.They place more emphasis on the enclosed content than commas.Use parentheses to set off nonessential material, such as dates, clarifying information, or sources, from a sentence.Underlining and italics are often used interchangeably.Before word-processing programs were widely available, writers would underline certain words to indicate to publishers to italicize whatever was underlined.When writing, we must use punctuation to indicate these places of emphasis.This resource should help to clarify when and how to use various marks of punctuation.